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OWL - Online Writing Lab: Documenting Sources

Collection of short tutorials created by ASC, the Academic Support Center staff, to help students successfully execute the writing requirements at Louisville Seminary.

Turabian/Chicago Style Turabian, Kate L., Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 2013.

General Guidelines for Using Turabian/Chicago

  1. Italicize titles of books and journals.
  2. Titles of articles/chapters in books are put in quotation marks.
  3. Quotations longer than two sentences or eight lines of text are placed single-spaced and block indented four spaces from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks, but do add the author and the page number at the end of the block quote.
  4. Page numbers of the paper should be at the right margin at the top of the page or centered at the bottom of the page.
  5. Abbreviate books of the Bible in both the text and the footnotes. Also identify which version of the Bible is cited (NRSV, KJ). If all Bible quotes are from the same translation of the Bible then you only have to refer to the translation after the first quote. Do not include the Bible in the bibliography.
  6. Turabian/Chicago gives the writer the choice between footnotes, endnotes, and parenthetical citations. Ask your professors which one they prefer.
  7. If you cannot find an example of how to reference your source look in the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.
  8. Whatever you do be consistent.

APA Style............... American Psychological Association. (2010). Concise rules of APA style. Washington, DC American Psychological Association.


The style emphasizes the author and date as the most important information about a source. This information is contained within the text inside parentheses so the reader immediately knows if the cited research is current. A References list appears at the end of the paper. In its strictest form, this system omits quotation marks, uses minimal capitalization for titles of books and articles, and gives page numbers only for actual quotations, not for paraphrases or summaries. Consult the Manual for specifics.

General Guidelines

  1. Page numbers go in the top right hand corner.
  2. A shortened form of the title precedes the page number in the top right hand corner of each page.
    Example--"Families" 18
  3. Italicize titles of books and journals instead of underlining.
  4. Only the first word of the title of a book or article is capitalized.
    Example: Uppity women of medieval times
  5. Quotations longer than 40 words are placed in a double-spaced block that is indented five spaces from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks.
  6. Abbreviate books of the Bible in the text. Identify which version is cited but omit all other facts of publication.
    Example 1Cor. 13:1-13 (NEB)

Internet Resources for Turabian/Chicago --The Chicago Manual of Style FAQ (frequently asked questions). You can post questions or just read over the ones there.
-- The official short guide to citations in Turabian style. Comprehensive list of examples. --William Strunk’s The Elements of Style—This is an online version of Strunk’s classic reference of the principal requirements of plain English style and the rules of usage.